常问的问题集

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本问题集是一个关于常见问题的简短回答汇总。

更多的关于 Stellarium 的使用、地景、用户自定义和天文学方面的问题可参见用户手册。这里仅仅是回答最基础的使您能对 Stellarium 快速上手的问题。

Note: this FAQ is a short list of answers to common problems.

Most of the content of the old FAQ (about using Stellarium, landscapes, customization, astronomy...) is now available and up to date in the user's guide. This page will only list the bare minimum to get you up and running.


Contents

一般问题

Stellarium 是什么?

Stellarium 是一个开源的桌面天像软件,可以运行在 Linux/Unix、Windows 和 MacOS X 系统上。她使用 OpenGL 实时渲染绘制天空图像,其效果与你通过肉眼、双筒望远镜或小型望远镜看到非常相似。Stellarium 使用起来非常简单,即使是新手也能很快熟悉。 Stellarium 项目由 Fabien Chéreau 于2001年夏天开始启动,参见 Sourceforge Stellarium 项目主页

Stellarium is an open source desktop planetarium for Linux/Unix, Windows and MacOSX. It renders the skies in realtime using OpenGL, which means the skies will look exactly like what you see with your eyes, binoculars, or a small telescope. Stellarium is very simple to use, which is one of its biggest advantages: it can easily be used by beginners. The Stellarium project was started by Fabien Chéreau during the summer of 2001 and uses Sourceforge intensively. Access the Sourceforge project page here.

Stellarium 是免费的吗?

是的!Stellarium 是开源软件。任何人都有权免费下载和使用该软件,有权修改源代码后或不加修改地将其发送给其他人。所有这些权利都须遵守GNU通用公共许可证(GPL).

Yes! Stellarium is open source software. Anyone has the right to download and use the software for free, to distribute it without modifying to other people, or modify the source code, all of this under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL).

从哪里下载 Stellarium?

从这个下载页面就可以下载。 Stellarium 由 Sourceforge 服务器维护。点击了下载链接之后,您会看到一个 Sourceforge 服务器列表,每一个都标出了它们所在的地点。应选择离你最近的服务器以保证下载的速度。

Via the download page. Stellarium is hosted on Sourceforge servers. After clicking on the right link of the download page, you will be taken to a list of Sourceforge servers, each with their location. Click on the file icon of the one geographically closest to you, it ensures a speedy download.

如何向开发者反馈意见?

您的建议对 Stellarium 是十分宝贵的。参看Stellarium 主页的相关链接来获取使用帮助、提问、报告错误,或者(更牛的)提交你写的补丁。

Your ideas and comments are invaluable to Stellarium. Have a look at the homepage to see where you can get personal support, ask for new features, report bugs and even submit your own patches.


安装 Stellarium

Stellarium 的系统需求是什么?

一个可以使用 OpenGL 渲染的图形显示卡。1999年或2000年出的 Riva TNT2 就可以了。Stellarium 对处理器的依赖较大,一个快速的处理器可以使你得到更高的帧刷新率。近几年生产的电脑应该都可以运行 Stellarium。另外,你的电脑需要运行在 Linux、 Windows 或 MacOS X 操作系统上。

给你一些感性的认识,我们在以下这些过时的电脑上成功运行了 Stellarium:

  • 奔3 800Mhz, 128MB RAM, Intel 主板集成显卡 (操作系统 Windows XP)
  • AMD K6 400 Mhz, 256MB RAM, Nvidia Gforce2 AGP 显卡, DirectX 9.0 (操作系统 Windows XP)

A graphics card capable of rendering OpenGL. A Riva TNT2, released in 1999 or 2000, should do. Stellarium is also fairly processor intensive, so you will get higher framerates with faster processors. Any reasonably recent computer should be able to run Stellarium. Furthermore your computer should be running a Linux, Windows or MacOSX operating system.

To give you an idea of what's possible, we've had success with these older computers:

  • Pentium III 800Mhz, 128MB RAM, Intel on board graphics (under Windows XP).
  • AMD K6 400 Mhz, 256MB RAM, Nvidia Gforce2 AGP, DirectX 9.0 (Windows XP)

如何安装 Stellarium?

对于Windows 用户,运行下载的"setup.exe"文件并按照程序指示操作。 对于Linux 用户,最简单的方法是找一个预先编译好的安装包。 你也可以自己编译程序:在 Linux、Posix、Cygwin 和 MacOS X 中编译程序的具体方法可以参考"INSTALL"文件。 对于MacOS X 用户需下载 dmg 文件,双击打开它,程序文件在下载文件中,将程序文件拖放到你的 Applications 文件夹中即可。

For Windows users, run the downloaded file "setup.exe" and follow the instructions. For Linux users, the easiest is to find a pre-compiled package for your distribution. But it is also possible to compile the program yourself: detailed compilation instructions for Linux, Posix, Cygwin and MacOSX are available in the "INSTALL" file. Mac OSX users should download the dmg file, double click on it to open, the application is contained inside, drag the application to your Applications folder.

如何卸载 Stellarium?

对于 Windows 用户,使用控制面板中的"添加删除程序"卸载 Stellarium。 对于 Linux 用户,如果你安装的是预编译版本,则可以使用包管理器卸载。如果你是自己编译的,你可以在编译目录下输入“make uninstall”指令卸载 Stellarium。

ForWindows users, uninstall Stellarium using the "Add or Remove Programs" applet in the Windows control panel. For Linux users, use your packet manager if you installed a pre-compiled version. If you compiled yourself you can uninstall by typing "make uninstall" in the compilation directory.


使用 Stellarium

如何开始使用 Stellarium?

  • 首先,设置你的地理位置。默认的地点是法国巴黎。你可以打开设置窗口,在其中的地图上点击你所在的位置,或者直接输入经纬度。最后不要忘记点击“set as default(设为默认值)”按钮保存你的设置。这样,你的 Stellarium 星空就和你抬头所看到的星空一致了。如果你使用笔记本电脑外出,那么你可能需要重新设置你的地理位置了。</li>
  • 使用鼠标和键盘可以转动 Stellarium 天幕。</li>
  • 使用上下翻页键可以放大和缩小 Stellarium 天幕。</li>
  • 用鼠标左键可以选择天体,右键可以放弃选择。鼠标中键或者空格键则可以将选中的天体调整到屏幕中央。</li>
  • 放大星云和行星是非常有趣的哦...</li>
  • 按键 J 用来减慢速度,甚至倒转时间,按键 L 则可以增加时间速度,按键 K 使时间速度恢复正常。</li>
  • 需要帮助的时候,可以按 H 。</li>
  • Set your location first! The default location is Paris, France. You can click on your location on the map in the configuration window, or enter coordinates manually. Don't forget to save the changes. Do that by clicking "set as default". From now on, the sky will look exactly as it looks where you live when you run Stellarium. If you take Stellarium along on a trip with a laptop, you will need to adjust your location of course.</li>
  • Use the mouse or arrow keys to look around.</li>
  • Use the page up and page down keys to zoom in and out.</li>
  • Use the left mouse button to select an object, the right button to deselect the object and middle mouse button or spacebar to center on the selected object.</li>
  • Zooming on nebulas or planets is very interesting...</li>
  • J slows down or reverses speed, L increases time speed, and K makes time return to normal speed.</li>
  • Press the H key for help.

    如何将分辨率调整为菜单上没有的设置?

    你可能在一台配置宽屏显示器的电脑上运行 Stellarium ,菜单中没有你的屏幕分辨率,怎么办?在这种情况下,只需要使用一个文本处理软件(比如 Windows 的记事本)打开“config.ini”文件,找到“screen_w”(分辨率宽度,单位为像素)和“screen_h”(分辨率高度)这两个参数,将其修改为你需要的数值,然后保存文件并运行 Stellarium。OK,享受你的星空吧!

    You are running Stellarium on one of those fancy widescreen laptops, and there is no option specifying your screen resolution in the menu. In that case, just open the config.ini file with a text editor, and find the screen_w and screen_h values. Set the numbers to the desired dimensions, save the file and restart Stellarium: enjoy the view!

    有没有 Stellarium 的用户手册?

    基于 Matthew Gates 及其他志愿者的辛勤工作,我们有了 Stellarium 用户手册。手册提供了关于 Stellarium 的详细说明以及一些有关的天文定律说明。 下载 Stellarium 用户手册英文版(pdf文件)

    尚未提供可供下载的PDF中文版用户手册,可参看本Wiki中的中文版用户手册

    Thanks to Matthew Gates and various other contributors, there is. Find out everything you want to know about Stellarium, and the astronomic principles you see demonstrated in the program. Essential reading. Download the user's guide to Stellarium (pdf).

    自定义 Stellarium

    在 Stellarium 中如何使用其他的星座艺术图像?

    想使用你自己画的星座图像,或者使用波德绘制的古董级 Uranographia 星图上的图像?

    你需要更改星座贴图,并且在 constellationsart.fab 文件中调校好他们的坐标位置。 如果这些图片没有版权限制,你还可以将你的图像拿出来供大家分享。

    Want to use other drawings than the ones included in Stellarium, like your own drawings, or antique drawings from the Uranographia?

    You will need to change the constellation textures, and possibly adjust their coordinates in the constellationsart.fab file. If they're not burdened by restrictive copyrights, you can share the set you made with the rest of the community.

    可以显示更多的恒星吗?

    Stellarium 使用 Hipparcos 星表,它包含有120000颗恒星。目前还不能使用其他的星表。 (0.9.0版本扩充了星表,默认星表可以显示60万颗恒星,使用扩展星表更是将显示星数提升到了2.1亿。)

    Stellarium uses the Hipparcos catalog, which contains over 120000 stars. It is currently not possible to use other star catalogs.

    可以将 Stellarium 翻译为我的语言吗?

    从 0.8.0 版开始,Stellarium 可以显示多种语言。可以在设置窗口或 config.ini 文件中进行语言设置。有些语言的翻译工作可能尚未完成,所以我们希望 Stellarium 的用户可以参与到惠及他人的语言翻译工作中。关于参与翻译的步骤说明请参考使用gettext进行翻译.

    Starting from version 0.8.0, Stellarium can be tailored to show your language. Settings are in the preferences window, or in the config.ini file. It is possible that the translation isn't complete yet, so we would be grateful if the talented translators among the Stellarium users would contribute to the translations. Info about the process is on the translation page.


    疑难问题

    我无法安装 Stellarium

    请仔细阅读随 Stellarium 文件提供的安装说明"INSTALL"文件。

    Read the installation instructions contained in the "INSTALL" file, which comes with Stellarium.

    Stellarium 安装后无法运行

    已知问题:MacOS X 0.9.0 版本,如果是从老版本升级的,并且旧的 config.ini 文件设置为全屏模式,0.9.0将无法运行。编辑 config.ini 文件,将 fullscreen (全屏显示)的值设为 false (否)即可。

    对于其他问题,经常的情况是由于某种原因导致文件损坏或格式错误。重新下载、安装一遍往往可以解决问题。此时特别要注意的是不要忘了备份您自己的设置和自定义文件。

    Stellarium 会在标准输出和标准错误接口输出运行报告。这个报告可以在 Windows 的 cmd 窗口看到,在 Linux 和OS X中,从终端运行 Stellarium 也可以看到这个报告。如果你自己无法解决问题,可以将这个输出报告发给我们请求技术支持。

    0.9.0 / OSX If you have upgraded from an older version of Stellarium, and your old config.ini file was set so that Stellarium started in full screen mode, 0.9.0 will fail to start. Just edit your config.ini file and edit the line with the fullscreen setting so the value is false.

    For other problems, we can offer some accounts of what people experienced in the past. Maybe a file necessary for Stellarium was corrupted or badly formatted in some way. Try reinstalling, don't forget to backup any Stellarium files you might have customized.

    Stellarium reports basic actions on standard output and standard error. This output can be read in the cmd window on Windows, or can be seen by starting Stellarium from a terminal in Linux and OS X. Have a read of this output and see if there is any helpful information. If you can't fix your problem, post a support request, and include this output.

    在电脑上显示速度很慢,帧速度也很慢

    可能是你禁用了硬件渲染功能。另外,请确认你的3D显卡安装了最新的 OpenGL 驱动程序。

    This happens when hardware rendering is disabled. If you have a 3D video card, make sure that your OpenGL drivers are installed and up to date.

    Stellarium 正常运行了一段时间后程序崩溃

    Stellarium 十分耗费处理器的运算能力,这会使处理器长时间处于高速运算状态,从而导致电脑温度上升。如果电脑死机或崩溃,你可能是遇到了散热问题。如果问题是这样,那么其他的处理器高耗程序(如MP3编码)也会导致同样的问题。在新版程序中,增加了帧速率限制功能,这将有助于这个问题的解决。

    Stellarium is pretty processor intensive. This means things can get quite warm inside your computer. If you experience freezes or computer crashes, you might have a heat problem. If this is the case, other processor intensive tasks such as mp3 encoding should lead to the same problem. In the newest versions, a frame rate limiter is present. That should solve your problem.

    有些卫星不在正确的位置上。

    由于缺乏资料,冥王星的卫星卡戎Charon(希腊神话中送亡魂过冥河去阴间的神,也就是西方的牛头马面)和海王星卫星的位置是不正确的,但是其他卫星的位置则是根据天文星历计算的,是正确的。另外,如果你要比对 Stellarium 中的卫星和你在望远镜中看到的卫星,那么你应该先在 config.ini 文件中启用 light travel time compensation (光线传播补偿)功能,因为 Stellarium 中看到的是“现在”卫星所在的位置,而你在望远镜中看到的则是几分钟前(光线从这些卫星那里要几分钟才能到达地球)它们的位置。同样,行星也存在这个问题。

    Currently we have no accurate ephemeris for Charon and no ephemeris for Neptunian satellites at all. The other satellite ephemeris should be correct. When you compare with what you see in your telescope you should enable light travel time compensation in config.ini.

    非拉丁文字的字体无法在我的语言状态下显示

    考虑到下载文件的大小,我们没有提供更多的字体文件。发生上述这种问题的原因可能是程序中包含了您的语言设置,但是没有包含相应的字体。你只需找到一个你的语言所用的字体,并更改 config.ini 文件中的相应配置就可以了。参见在 Stellarium 中显示复杂文字

    不幸的是,中文正好遇到了这个问题,请参考如何在Stellarium中正确显示中文

    Chances are your language is included, but the program doesn't include a font for your language, as we're concerned about download size. Find a font for your language, and tell the program which font to use in the config.ini file. See Display complex characters in Stellarium for more details.

    Stellarium 全屏显示时,屏幕的刷新率只有60Hz

    这是 Windows XP 的一个错误。有很多修正程序,这里有一个较小的程序(安装的风险由您自己承担): RefreshLock

    This is a bug in Windows XP. There are numerous fixes, and there is a small program available for it here (install at your own risk): RefreshLock.

    我的语言翻译得不完整,或者有些术语翻译错误

    Stellarium 的翻译工作是一个集体努力的结果,所以有时候有的翻译人员开始了翻译工作却没有完成,或无法准确翻译一些特定的词汇。你可以帮助我们!请参看使用gettext进行翻译

    Translations in Stellarium are a community effort, so it is possible that a local translator started the project, but never finished it, or didn't find help with some specific words. You can help us! Translation tips are on this page: Translation using gettext

    我遇到显示问题

    问题的表现包括:界面残缺、文字显示问题(在 S3 和 ATI Rage 显卡上)、恒星缺失等。这些问题大多由于旧的硬件设备或者主板集成显卡引起。我们建议尝试升级显卡驱动程序、更改显卡设置或者退回使用老版本驱动程序。一个主板集成 Geforce 4MX 显卡的用户,在退回使用了老版本的 5.2.1.6 驱动程序后解决了问题。对于使用S3显卡遇到了问题的用户,建议升级驱动程序至“S3 Graphics ProSavageDDR driver for Windows XP”。

    很多 Windows 界面增强软件、桌面主题和皮肤程序会引起与 OpenGL 程序(包括 Stellarium)的兼容问题。请尝试关闭这些程序:WindowBlinds、WindowFX、ObjectDock、IconPackager、Entbloess 及类似程序。

    Problems range from missing parts in the Stellarium interface, text display problems (on S3 and ATI Rage graphics cards), to missing stars. They mostly occur on older hardware, or on specific on-board graphics chips (an onboard Geforce 4MX user solved the problem by reverting to the older 5.2.1.6 driver for his model). We advise experimenting with the graphics driver (updating, changing settings, reverting to older versions) if you're comfortable doing this. For users experiencing problems with S3 graphics controllers, update the driver to the S3 Graphics ProSavageDDR driver for Windows XP.

    Many GUI enhancement, theme engine and skinning programs for Windows can cause problems with OpenGL applications including Stellarium. Please try disabling these if you have them running: WindowBlinds, WindowFX, ObjectDock, IconPackager and Entbloess (and similar programs).

    在 Windows 中无法记录脚本

    Stellarium 尝试将脚本文件(.sts)保存在您的用户文件夹中,程序寻找英文的“Documents and Settings”这个文件夹并保存脚本文件。这个操作在国际版 Windows 中存在问题,因为国际版中,这个文件夹的名字可能会被当地语言所替代。解决方式是,打开 Stellarium 文件夹下的“stderr.txt”错误信息文件,看看 Stellarium 尝试将脚本文件保存到哪个文件夹,然后创建那个文件夹,这样你就可以记录脚本文件了。

    Stellarium attempts to save a Stellarium script file (.sts) in your user directory. On international versions of Windows, this doesn't work perfectly yet, as the program is looking for the English "Documents and Settings" folder. Workaround: open the stderr.txt file in the Stellarium directory to see where Stellarium is trying to write, create that folder, and you should be able to record scripts now.

    在全屏模式下,仍然可以看见部分桌面(在 Windows 中)

    如果运行着 WindowBlinds 或其他皮肤/主题程序,尝试停止它,或者将 Stellarium 添加到它的例外清单中。

    If you run WindowBlinds or another skinning/theme program, try de-activating it, or adding Stellarium to the list of applications which should be excluded.

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