description.en.utf8   description.en.utf8 
<h3>Aztec</h3> <h3>Aztec</h3>
<p align="justify"><img src="aztec0.png" width="150" height="146" align="le ft" />For ancient aztecs, the knowledge of the night skies and stars moveme nt had great importance for their calendars and the measurement of both agr icultural and sacred cycles. However, great part of this knowledge was lost as consequence of the Spanish conquest which occurred on continental Ameri ca in the 16th century.</p> <p align="justify"><img src="aztec0.png" width="150" height="146" align="le ft" />For ancient aztecs, the knowledge of the night skies and stars moveme nt had great importance for their calendars and the measurement of both agr icultural and sacred cycles. However, great part of this knowledge was lost as consequence of the Spanish conquest which occurred on continental Ameri ca in the 16th century.</p>
<p align="justify">The elements of the Aztec society such as culture, econo <p align="justify">The elements of the Aztec society such as culture, econo
my and science is preserved in the <em>tlacuilos</em>, word that comes from my and science is preserved in the <em>tlacuilos</em>, word that comes from
the ancient nahuatl word <em>tlacuiloa</em>, which means <em>writing with the ancient Nahuatl word <em>tlacuiloa</em>, which means <em>writing with
drawings</em>. These Tlacuilos where stored in the <em>amoxcalli</em>, mean drawings</em>. These Tlacuilos where stored in the <em>amoxcalli</em>, mean
ing amoxtli: books and calli: house. Later their became known as <em>codice ing amoxtli: books and calli: house. Later their became known as <em>codice
s</em>; a word that came from the Latin word Codex which means written book s</em>; a word that came from the Latin word Codex which means written book
.</p> .</p>
<p align="justify">After the spanish conquest many of the pre-hispanic Cod <p align="justify">After the Spanish conquest many of the pre-hispanic Cod
exes where destroyed, their main feature is that their where drawn in many exes where destroyed, their main feature is that their where drawn in many
different materials such as deer skin, <em>amate</em> paper or cotton fabri different materials such as deer skin, <em>amate</em> paper or cotton fabri
c and they had no text only draws or <em>glifos</em>. However the collectio c and they had no text only draws or <em>glifos</em>. However the collectio
n of Mesoamerican customs continued prior to the spanish conquest thanks to n of Mesoamerican customs continued prior to the Spanish conquest thanks to
the work of some native indians and some spanish priests, this codexes are the work of some native indians and some Spanish priests, this codexes are
known as Colonial Codexes and there is a change of the way of drawing beca known as Colonial Codexes and there is a change of the way of drawing beca
use of the new techniques of drawing and the new materials imported from Eu use of the new techniques of drawing and the new materials imported from Eu
rope, also because of the incorporation of descriptive text both in spanish rope, also because of the incorporation of descriptive text both in Spanish
and nahuatl.</p> and Nahuatl.</p>
<h5 align="center"><img src="edificios.png" width="321" height="156" /><br /> <h5 align="center"><img src="edificios.png" width="321" height="156" /><br />
<em>Astronomical building</em></h5> <em>Astronomical building</em></h5>
<p align="justify">Sadly, the Aztec astronomical knowledge in the remaining codexes is really small. The next image is one of the few that names some constellations and astronomical phenomena identified by the Aztec, it belon g to the <em>Primeros Memoriales</em> (first memorials), wich is a colonial manuscript of the 16th century written by Fray Bernardino de Sahagun.</p> <p align="justify">Sadly, the Aztec astronomical knowledge in the remaining codexes is really small. The next image is one of the few that names some constellations and astronomical phenomena identified by the Aztec, it belon g to the <em>Primeros Memoriales</em> (first memorials), which is a colonia l manuscript of the 16th century written by Fray Bernardino de Sahagun.</p>
<p align="center"><img src="Primeros_Memoriales.png" width="399" height="35 1" /></p> <p align="center"><img src="Primeros_Memoriales.png" width="399" height="35 1" /></p>
<p align="justify">Now, in this work we have an explanation of some Aztec s tellar figures for Stellarium.</p> <p align="justify">Now, in this work we have an explanation of some Aztec s tellar figures for Stellarium.</p>
<h4><em>Mamalhuaztli</em></h4> <h4><em>Mamalhuaztli</em></h4>
<p align="justify"><img src="mamalhuaztli_t.png" width="100" height="107" h space="7" align="left" />Ancient Aztec indentified the Orion's Belt as Mama lhuaztli, and it represented the wood sticks used to light the new fire in the commemoration celebrated every 52 years by the Mexicans and their neigh bors named <em>toxiuh molpilia</em> wich means binding of the years and coi ncided with the beginning of the new year named <em>xiuhtzitzquilo</em>.</p > <p align="justify"><img src="mamalhuaztli_t.png" width="100" height="107" h space="7" align="left" />Ancient Aztec identified the Orion's Belt as Mamal huaztli, and it represented the wood sticks used to light the new fire in t he commemoration celebrated every 52 years by the Mexicans and their neighb ors named <em>toxiuh molpilia</em> which means binding of the years and coi ncided with the beginning of the new year named <em>xiuhtzitzquilo</em>.</p >
<p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p>
<p align="center"><img src="mamalhuaztli_image.png" width="147" height="135 " /></p> <p align="center"><img src="mamalhuaztli_image.png" width="147" height="135 " /></p>
<h4><em>Tianquiztli</em></h4> <h4><em>Tianquiztli</em></h4>
<p align="justify"><img src="Tianquiztli_T.png" width="100" height="107" al ign="left" />The group of stars that we know as Pleiades symbolized for the Mexicas <em>Tianquiztli</em>, wich means market, perhaps because of the cr owd that gathers on them, they're generally represented by one or two peopl e inside a circle with goods.</p> <p align="justify"><img src="Tianquiztli_T.png" width="100" height="107" al ign="left" />The group of stars that we know as Pleiades symbolized for the Mexicas <em>Tianquiztli</em>, which means market, perhaps because of the c rowd that gathers on them, they're generally represented by one or two peop le inside a circle with goods.</p>
<p align="center"><img src="tiaquitztli_image.png" width="141" height="141" /></p> <p align="center"><img src="tiaquitztli_image.png" width="141" height="141" /></p>
<p align="justify">Currently, in Mexico the informal market or street mark ets are called <em>Tianguis</em>.</p> <p align="justify">Currently, in Mexico the informal market or street mark ets are called <em>Tianguis</em>.</p>
<h4><em>Citlaltlachtli</em></h4> <h4><em>Citlaltlachtli</em></h4>
<p align="justify"><img src="citlaltlachtli_t.png" width="100" height="107" align="left" />The constellation of Gemini was called <em>Citlaltlachtli</ em>, which means the ball game of the stars. This game was endowed with a r itual significance and used a natural rubber ball. It is said that the move ment of the ball within the playing field refers to the movement of the sun and moon.</p> <p align="justify"><img src="citlaltlachtli_t.png" width="100" height="107" align="left" />The constellation of Gemini was called <em>Citlaltlachtli</ em>, which means the ball game of the stars. This game was endowed with a r itual significance and used a natural rubber ball. It is said that the move ment of the ball within the playing field refers to the movement of the sun and moon.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p>
<h4><em>Xonecuilli</em></h4> <h4><em>Xonecuilli</em></h4>
<p align="justify"><img src="xonecuilli_t.png" width="100" height="107" ali gn="left" />The Ursa Minor constellation is identified as <em>Xonecuilli</e m> wich means twisted foot, and is related to Nanahuatzin, this character i s represented with twisted feet, filled with boils and sores, this sick and poor God sacrificed himself to become <em>Tonatiuh</em> the Sun god.</p> <p align="justify"><img src="xonecuilli_t.png" width="100" height="107" ali gn="left" />The Ursa Minor constellation is identified as <em>Xonecuilli</e m> which means twisted foot, and is related to Nanahuatzin, this character is represented with twisted feet, filled with boils and sores, this sick an d poor God sacrificed himself to become <em>Tonatiuh</em> the Sun god.</p>
<p align="center"><img src="nanahuatzin.png" width="141" height="138" /></p > <p align="center"><img src="nanahuatzin.png" width="141" height="138" /></p >
<p align="justify">Apparently, this constellation can also be associated wi th the Southern Cross and its surrounding stars as is referred by <em>Tezoz omoc</em>. For its part, Sahagun speaks of his resemblance to bread made in the form of letter S and called by the Aztecs <em>xonecuilli</em>.</p> <p align="justify">Apparently, this constellation can also be associated wi th the Southern Cross and its surrounding stars as is referred by <em>Tezoz omoc</em>. For its part, Sahagun speaks of his resemblance to bread made in the form of letter S and called by the Aztecs <em>xonecuilli</em>.</p>
<p align="center"><img src="xonecuilli_Glifo.png" width="300" height="149" /><br /><em>xonecuilli</em></p> <p align="center"><img src="xonecuilli_Glifo.png" width="300" height="149" /><br /><em>xonecuilli</em></p>
<h4><em>Citlalcolotl</em></h4> <h4><em>Citlalcolotl</em></h4>
<p align="justify"><img src="colotlixayac_t.png" width="100" height="100" a lign="left" />According to the Florentino Codex Sahagun's informants identi fied a group of stars known as <em>Citlalcolotl</em>, the scorpion star. In turn, Tezozomoc also mentions the scorpion star and he called it <em>Col otlixayac</em>, which means face of a scorpion.</p> <p align="justify"><img src="colotlixayac_t.png" width="100" height="100" a lign="left" />According to the Florentino Codex Sahagun's informants identi fied a group of stars known as <em>Citlalcolotl</em>, the scorpion star. In turn, Tezozomoc also mentions the scorpion star and he called it <em>Col otlixayac</em>, which means face of a scorpion.</p>
<h5 align="center"><img src="colotlixayac_image.png" width="158" height="26 6" /><br /> <h5 align="center"><img src="colotlixayac_image.png" width="158" height="26 6" /><br />
<em>Paris Codex</em></h5> <em>Paris Codex</em></h5>
<p align="justify">In a section of the Paris Codex called zodiac pages appe ars the scorpion, in this codex the icons shows figures of animals hanging from the body of the Celestial Dragon.</p> <p align="justify">In a section of the Paris Codex called zodiac pages appe ars the scorpion, in this codex the icons shows figures of animals hanging from the body of the Celestial Dragon.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p>
<h3>Conclusion</h3> <h3>Conclusion</h3>
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